Keynote Lecture by Pablo Celnik, USA
In the last 25 years non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been developed and tested in different populations from healthy individuals to patients with neurological, psychiatric and pain conditions. While early studies showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is useful to investigate neurophysiology and plasticity, more recent research showed that it can also affect behavior. This created an opportunity to be used as a therapeutic tool. This development led in turn to test and develop other NIBS devices such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In this talk, I will review the role and impact NIBS techniques have had so far in the PRM field. Examples will be presented from their utility understanding mechanisms and prognosis of stroke recovery to the evidence suggesting that NIBS might have a potential therapeutic role in clinical practice. Finally, I will discuss fundamental considerations that will likely impact the utilization of NIBS in the clinical setting.